History of Will County
By Hon. George H. Woodruff.
From the above it will be seen that sorghum makes but a small figure in our present agricultural productions: but, in common with many other counties, Will County took its turn at the sorghum fever. This raged along between 1855 and 1865. The farmers generally, at one time or another, raised sorghum. They made their own molasses, and tried to make their own sugar. Merchants sold sorghum-seed, and the sorghum-mills ornamented the farmers' door-yards, and the tall and handsome canes grew in luxuriant beauty in his fields. The war added stimulus to its production, as it seemed for a time as though we should be cut off from our Southern supply of sugar altogether. Sorghum conventions were held, at which samples were displayed and the modes of cultivation discussed. Among the most enthusiastic believers in sorghum was the Rev. Royal Reed, for some time a Congregational preacher here and elsewhere. He believed that it was going to prove a bonanza to the farmers and the country; that it would supply sirup and sugar from its juice, a beautiful dye, outvying the famous Tyrian, from its seed, the best and cheapest fiber for paper in its stalk, and last but not least, a spirit could be distilled from the pomace which would put New England and Jamaica to shame. The dominie had a little plantation on which he raised the cane, and he set up a mill in his yard, and the steam of his evaporating-pan went up, day after day, a sweet incense to Ceres. He tried to make sugar, but the product was small. But his rum was a success. The libations he poured out to Bacchus were the admiration of the neighborhood. Many were permitted to taste just enough to see what could be done with sorghum, but only in medicinal doses. Not much was heard about the dominie's sugar, but the praises of his rum were on the lips of not a few. But the sorghum fever passed away, like many another. It did not prove a success; its sirup always had an unpleasant twang, and refused to granulate, and soon the farmers stopped raising it, and the sorghum-mills rotted and no longer ornamented the landscape. This mention of sorghum has given us an opportunity to tell a pretty good story of its enthusiastic disciple. He is still living, but just over the county line in Grundy County, so we think it will be safe. It illustrates the manner in which so many people blunder when they attempt to quote Scripture, and thus it has a good moral. If it were not for the good moral we should not tell it. While Pastor of the old Congregational Church here, he boarded awhile in the family of some ladies who kept a female boarding-school. They had quite a large family of teachers and boarding scholars. These ladies had a rule that, as each one, teachers and boarders, took their seats at the table they should repeat a text of Scripture—a very pleasant and commendable practice, in favor of which much might be said. On one occasion, one of the ladies gave as her text: "Duty is ours, consequences are God's." It was the dominie's turn next, and he matched her quotation with another equally scriptural, if not equally beautiful: "Let every tub stand on its own bottom." The Dominie had to hunt another boarding-place. How many fevers we have survived! The bilious fever, the gold fever, the land fever, the oil fever, the superheated steam fever, the war fever, the sorghum fever, the woolen-factory fever, the rolling-mill fever, the Linden Heights fever, the horse-railway fever, the "Dolly Varden" fever—and yet we still live! And then the dress-reform fever, which raged in 1850—51-52. We had thought seriously of writing up its history, but we feel incapable of doing the subject justice, and it is a delicate theme. It was a brave and heroic attempt on the part of a few to bring about a change in female costume; but it failed, notwithstanding it had the zealous support of both the Signal and True Democrat, and those who were its zealous advocates and exemplars now wear dresses longer than ever!
The donation by the General Government of the sixteenth section of each township of the public lands—one-thirty-sixth—was made by the same act which provided for their survey. This was a most generous donation on the part of our parental Government, and was designed to furnish a nucleus, at least, of a general system of education; and, although many of these sections were prematurely sold, and the avails of such sales have, in many instances, been squandered, still the fund derived from this and other sources lightens to some extent the taxes raised for school purposes. There is besides this, a school, college and seminary fund, being 3 per cent of the net proceeds of the sale of public lands, which is distributed by the State to each county in proportion to the number of scholars. Our county receives nearly 81,000 annually. Certain fines inflicted for misdemeanors are assigned to the school fund. The amount varies from $200 to $800, according to behavior of the citizens. In 1877, it was $510.63. There is also a general tax levied by the State for school purposes, which is distributed to counties according to population under 21 years. The amount received by our county, for 1877, was $16,432.53. In addition, each school district has the power, within certain limits, to raise the amount needed for keeping up the respective schools, and also special taxes for building schoolhouses. In incorporated cities, the city schools come under the city control, and the corporation has power to assess the needed tax. During the earlier years of our history, of course, schools wrere left chiefly to the voluntary efforts of neighborhoods. Some of them we have already noticed. The present system of schools assumed substantially its present shape somewhere about the year 1850. The duties of School Commissioners were previously confined to the charge of the funds, and the duties of the School Trustees, in each township, to the sixteenth section and care of the township fund. It is greatly to be regretted that the people have been so careless in their selection of school officers. These should be selected with the greatest care and from the best, wisest and most responsible citizens, without regard to politics. Some townships have paid dearly for their carelessness in this regard, and still, what ought to elicit the most interest is really treated as of little importance. The last published report of the County Superintendent, Mrs. Mcintosh, gives:
|The total number of persons between 6 and 21 years||17,602|
|The total number enrolled in public schools||12,814|
|The total number enrolled in private schools||1,276|
|The total number not attending any school||3,515|
|Number of teachers in public schools||419|
|Number of teachers in private schools||28|
|Total number of schoolhouses||207|
|Total number of volumes in school libraries||859|
|Total amount paid teachers for year ending September, 1876||$90,596 03|
|Total amount paid male teachers for the year ending September, 1876||29,057 48|
|Total amount paid female teachers for the year ending September, 1876||62,538 55|
|Number of male teachers||124|
|Number of female teachers||295|
|Average monthly wages to males||$46 84|
|Average monthly wages to females||30 06|
|Total amount of receipts for the year||$177,778 69|
|Total amount of expenditures for the year||137,865 72|
|Balance on hand||39,912 97|
Matters specially relating to the different towns, are left to the township historian. Private schools have been taught, from time to time, in the principal towns of the county. In Joliet, by Alexander Mcintosh, S. W. Stone, S. O. Simends, K. J. Hammond, Miss C. C. McDonald, and Mrs. Grover. An academy was once organized by the efforts, principally, of Rev. L. H. Loss, and flourished awhile under the administration of Samuel Emerson. There was once a young lady's boarding and select school, which flourished some years, and was managed by Mrs. Crowley and her sister and daughter. S. O. Simonds taught a normal school at onetime. Commercial schools have also been in operation much of the time, by Prof. Russell and others. There have been and still are several parochial schools, and Mrs. Mcintosh has at present a select school. These will come under the notice of the township historian. Mr. K. J. Hammond had, at one time, a flourishing academy at Plainfield, and there was once a college, called the Northwestern, in operation there, but which has now been removed to another county. After its removal, the building was occupied by an academy under the auspices of the Fox River Union. We wish we could place upon record a flourishing college or even a high school or academy; but, after all, the people's colleges are the most important to our well-being, and should be looked after in all their interests much more closely and wisely by our voters and tax-payers, and especially by parents.
We had intended to devote a page or two, to the literary history of Will County, but we have found the work too vast as well as too delicate. Although we should know well where to begin—with that first fourth of July oration—we should not know when or where to stop. We have already spoken of Mrs. E. Jessup Eames, of Channahon, our first poetess in point of time, and, perhaps, in point of ability. She published a volume in her lifetime which contains some beautiful pieces. Mrs. E. A. W. Hopkins, a long-time resident of Joliet in its earlier days, also has published a volume or two. Of these we could safely speak; but when we should undertake to go into a full list of writers, both in poetry and prose, who have flourished during the forty-odd years of the county's existence, we should be lost in the multitude of names and in the effort to select those most worthy of notice; and we should be sure to leave out some one who would be entitled to have his or her name handed down to future fame on the pages of this history. We therefore forbear to undertake the work, and leave it to another. Even while we write, we have heard that one of our well-known citizens has a poetical work in the press; and it is but a day or two since, a grave Judge, while sitting upon the bench, broke out into verse at the sight of a brother lawyer's new overcoat!
In 1857, the Legislature authorized the building of a new Penitentiary, to be located at Joliet. Commissioners were appointed to superintend the work. They purchased a tract of land on Section 3 of this township, of 72 19-100 acres, with a front on the Canal of 55 rods. No better selection could probably have been made. The ground is underlaid by our limestone strata to such a depth as to render all tunneling out an impossibility. There was a fine natural spring on the property, and considerable stone, valuable for its construction, and large quarries in the vicinity. The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad passes between it and the Canal. Boyington & Wheelock, of Chicago, were selected as the architects, and a most extensive and beautiful plan was projected. John B. Preston was appointed Superintendent of construction and engineer, but served only a short time, as his duties as Superintendent of the Canal required his time. On his resignation, George R. McGregor was appointed to fill the place. Work was commenced in August, 1857, and by January 1, 1858, $125,000 of work was under contract with Sanger & Casey. Sixteen acres were inclosed by a wall six feet thick and twenty-five feet high. A beautiful Warden's house occupying the center of the south front, with wings which contain the cells, was commenced on the plan drawn by the architects we have named, furnishing 900 congregate cells and 100 solitary and 100 female. In May, 1859, prisoners began to be removed from Alton, and by June, 1860, all were removed. At the start, the prison was leased, but in June, 1867, the State assumed control, and three Commissioners were temporarily appointed. They were subsequently elected by the people. A Warden, Deputy Warden, Chaplain, Matron and Physician were chosen, and the work has been completed on the original plan. Within the walls, also, many buildings, sheds, etc., necessary for the mechanical operations carried on, have been from time to time erected, and at present the walls inclose an immense amount of mechanical and manufacturing establishments, and is a vast hive of industries, where those who have forfeited their right to freedom are required to serve the State, and earn their own support. The original estimate of the cost was $550,000. The sum of $300,000 was originally appropriated to operate it. In 1869, $350,000 more were appropriated, and in 1871, $175,000. In 1871, the law was revised for its government, and the appointment of Commissioners vested in the Governor and subject to his removal. The Commissioners were also authorized to lease the labor of the convicts, and this is the plan now pursued as far as possible. During the last year of Gov. Palmer's administration the institution became self-sustaining. The prison has passed through various changes in its administration and policy, both during its construction and since, and has been a source of much discussion, which it is not important to record. It seems now to be wisely and carefully managed, and has been as prosperous during the era of hard times as any other establishment. The prisoners are under good and kind discipline, and no efforts seemed to be spared, consistent with their safe-keeping and the ends of justice, to secure their physical, moral and religious comfort and improvement. A chapel with regular religious services, a hospital and well-stocked dispensary, and the necessary attendants, with a skillful physician outside who visits the prison daily, a library of 6,000 volumes for reading, and a school and over 1,000 books for instruction—these are some of the provisions made for their benefit. Each cell is also supplied with a Bible. When the prison was first planned, it was thought to be on so large a scale that it would answer the needs of the State for many years; but it has already been found insufficient, and a new one is being constructed. Efforts for the spiritual good of the convicts were made by a former Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Lathrop, who is entitled to the grateful remembrance of the community; and these are continued by the present Chaplain, A. T. Briscoe, who resigned the post of Commissioner to take his present one, and is devoted to his work. The number of inmates at present (October 12, 1878) is 1,646. Of these, 1,621 are males and 25 females. There are leased 1,244, and employed by State, 402. The present Government is as follows:
Board of Commissioners.—Robert L. Dulaney, President; A. M. Jones, Secretary; S. H. Jones.
Officials.—Robert W. McClaughry, Warden; Benjamin L. Mayhew, Deputy Warden; D. C. Sleeper, Assistant Deputy Warden; A. T. Briscoe, Chaplain; A. W. Heise, M. D., Physician; Gallus Mueller, Clerk; John D. Leland, Steward; Mrs. J. E. Judson, Matron; C. F. Gross, Usher.
There has been much discussion at times as to the effects of the Prison upon the prosperity of the city and county, and it is often the theme of partisan denunciation. One thing seems plain, that the State must either keep its convicts in idleness and tax the people for their support, or employ them in such work as is remunerative; and while it may in some cases interfere somewhat with the wages of mechanics outside, yet the same objection is urged against labor-saving machinery. The disadvantages in this respect we think have been trifling and temporary, while the benefits to the place have been many and permanent. The Penitentiary gives employment to a great many men besides the convicts, as guards and keepers, foreman and engineers, and also brings in men to reside here (who employ their labor) with their families. It makes a ready market for the products of farmers in the vicinity, as will appear from the following estimate which we have seen of an ordinary dinner: 30 pounds of butter, 1,700 pounds of beef, 1,300 pounds of pork, 10 bushels of beans, 300 pounds of hominy, 300 pounds of rice, 10 bushels of peas, 24 bushels of potatoes, 2,800 pounds of cabbage, 10 barrels of krout, 1,200 pounds of bread, 250 pounds of coifee, etc. Not the least among the benefits which the city and county have derived from the location of the prison must be reckoned the valuable and enterprising men it has from time to time added to our population. Among the earlier of these we must reckon the genial, large-hearted Samuel K. Casey (now deceased); Dr. John R. Casey, his brother, who was several years the Physician in Charge, and still resides among us; and our enterprising citizen, William A. Steele, who was Clerk for the original contractors, Sanger & Casey, and who has since done so much to develop the stone business here. The list might be extended through the years, and would be found to include many valuable citizens, some still residents here. The amount of supplies purchased from Will County farmers and merchants for the use of the prison cannot be less than $100,000 annually; while the amount paid out by the State and by contractors for salaries and wages to officers, employes and foremen who, with their families, live in Joliet, will at least reach the same figure. We give the statistics of the prison at the date of October 12, 1878:
|Name of Contractors||Number Contracted for||Number Employed|
|Cigar shop||National Cigar Company||100|
|Harness shop||Kisser & Reitz||100||98|
|Boot and shoe shop||Selz, Schwab & Co||425||424|
|Wire fence shop||Joliet Wire Fence Company||30 to 60||47|
|Cooper shop||J. H. Winterbotham & Sons||160||171|
|Butt shop||Ohio Butt Company||90||88|
|Brush shop||Ohio Brush Works||65||66|
|Marble shop||Burlington Manufacturing Co.||65||69|
|Granite shop||G. A. Haley & Co||40||22|
|Tailor shop||A. V. Hutchins||50||36|
|Knitting shop||H. C. Cullom||25 to 50||33|
|Total on contracts||
|State runners in contract shops||35|
|Store and farm||17|
|Wash-room and clothing department||26|
|Total on State work||
Of the 402 men employed for State work, 88 men in stone department, 56 men in State shops, and 10 men in store and farm are absolutely productive. The balance are mostly employed for the service and at the expense of the institution. Citizens' pay-roll of Illinois State Penitentiary, 108 men. Contractors' employes at Illinois State Penitentiary, about 75 men. Wishing to get some idea of the religious efforts which are made for the benefit of the inmates of the Penitentiary, we availed ourselves of the kind permission of the Warden to attend the Sabbath service on the beautiful Autumn morning which greeted us the 20th of October, 1878. A short walk brought us to the gate which opens on the graveled serpentine path leading up from the Lockport road, through a beautiful, well-kept lawn of brightest green, dotted with flower-beds, to the handsome stone porch which commands the entrance to the main hall. Pausing here a moment to look at the lawn, consisting of two terraces, the upper one, over which we had just come, in front of the east wins, and the lower one, running along the west wing to the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad, with a beautiful, well-filled greenhouse at the dividing wall, we push open the door and find ourselves in the marble-paved hall, from which we enter the reception-room. Here we find quite a company, largely composed of ladies, who have come on a similar errand. After a few moments, the Chaplain and the Warden enter, and invite us to accompany them. We pass through the iron-grated door in the iron grated partition, which turns noiselessly upon its hinges at the bidding of a turnkey, and find ourselves in another hall; but now we are separated from the outside world, and can only return by the permission of the turnkey who has admitted us. But we pass on through another similar door into the prison-yard, where we catch a glimpse of many work-shops of various kinds, and find the building for which we are bound, in the second story of which is the chapel. This contains, on the first floor, the kitchen and other rooms, and is bordered all along the west front by a narrow terrace of green turf, which affords a grateful relief to the glare of stone walls and well-beaten thoroughfares. At the south end of this building, we pass up an outside stairway, through a door in the southwest corner, which admits us to the chapel, a large, rectangular room, well lighted and ventilated, and plainly seated, with a capacity, we judge, of ten or twelve hundred. At the further end is a door, through which the striped audience is filing in, taking their seats in squads as directed by guards. At the end by which we have entered, is an elevated platform, filled with the comfortable rustic chairs of the prison manufacture. These are being filled with that portion of the audience which are not in uniform. In the center of the platform, is a neat desk, on which lies a large Bible, and a cottage-organ is on the eastern end. As soon as all the audience—consisting, on the main floor, as we judge, of about eight hundred men, uniformed, and a dozen guards who occupy chairs on raised platforms on either wall, and on the platform at the south end, of a company of thirty or forty well-dressed gentlemen and ladies—are seated, the choir of nine young men in the prevalent uniform, assisted by Miss Cleghorn, of Joliet, at the organ, commence the singing of a familiar hymn, in which many of the audience join. The services then proceed very much as in any of our churches — prayer, reading of Scripture, singing, etc., after which the Chaplain delivers a plain, practical and pungent discourse from the text, Romans, viii, 34. After the discourse, the Chaplain invited Mr. Jones, one of the Commissioners, who happened to be present, to make an address, who did so in an earnest appeal to the hearers to resolve to lead a better life. During these exercises, the audience was quiet and attentive, and apparently as deeply interested as any we have ever seen. How much of this was due to the watchful eyes of the guards, we cannot tell. Although the attendance is not voluntary (except upon the class meeting), many, we presume, attend also from choice. If they do not do so for moral reasons, it must afford an agreeable diversion from the labors and thoughts of the week; and if they are greeted every Sabbath with such an array of youth and beauty as met them upon the occasion of which we write, we should think they would look forward to it with eager anticipation. But to be thus reminded of the sisters, wives, mothers and children, whose hearts they have broken and whose names they have dishonored and whose prayers and entreaties they have disregarded, may not be a cheerful sight! As the chapel is not large enough to accommodate all the inmates, the east and west wins; attend on alternate Sabbaths. We scrutinized the audience closely to see if there was any marked difference in the apparent intellectual and moral development of the striped audience and the people we meet every day, and were forced to admit that no such difference was visible. We noticed, also, that many seemed to be deeply interested in the services. After the service was over and the benediction pronounced, the largest portion of the uniformed audience withdrew at the north door, in charge of the guards. A part, however—about 200, as we judged—remained, and were seated in the front seats, when the Chaplain commenced a class meeting, opening it with singing, after which he called upon a brother to pray, when a young convict (who is the prison librarian) led in a fervent and well-worded prayer—every one in the seats kneeling. The brethren were then permitted to speak briefly, and ten or twelve responded, one after another, the Chaplain occasionally putting in a word of instruction or encouragement, and passing around in his audience and shaking them by the hand. It was a deeply interesting and affecting sight. Some alluded to their situation, spoke of the causes that had placed them where they were, and avowed their purpose to persevere, with the help of God. One or two thanked God that they had been put where they were, as it had been the means of their conversion. Among the number who spoke were three colored brethren, and one was especially fervent and happy. His face shone like that of Moses when he came down from the mount, and we have no doubt that the brother had himself been upon the mount and held communion with his Maker. He avowed his love for Christ and his happiness since he had found Him. Nothing now, he said, gave him any trouble; all was joy and peace. He was full of the spiritual elan of his mercurial race, and spoke on with voluble earnestness, with his eyes rolled up to the ceiling, increasing, each moment, in fervor, his spiritual Pegasus mounting higher and higher, until he seemed just ready to go up in a chariot of fire, when he was brought back to earth by a judicious word or two from the Chaplain and the starting of a hymn, which brought the dark-skinned brother to his seat, seemingly, we thought, a little disappointed in being thus brought back to earth. The whole service was most admirably conducted by the Chaplain, who seemed to have his flock under perfect control. About one-third of those who remained seemed to belong to the class, or society. An opportunity was given to any of the rest to join. On this occasion, one did so, and was called out in front and greeted by the Chaplain with a hearty hand-shake and a word or two of advice. The service was closed at half past 11 by the distribution of religious papers and the singing of the doxology, and thus we had spent two and a half hours in a most interesting manner and without weariness. We were impressed with the conviction that the Chaplain is doing a good work in his chosen field; that he is the right man in the right place, and that he has, perhaps, as much evidence of his success as falls to the lot of most Pastors. We understand that one of the Catholic Pastors of our city also holds a religious service at the prison, at which the inmates of that faith are permitted to attend, and that the Chaplain has an afternoon service for the women.
Previous to the adoption of township organization in 1850, the county had been divided into precincts for the purpose of election, with precinct Justices of the Peace and Constables, the county legislation and general business being transacted by County Commissioners. The list of County Commissioners from the organization of the county to 1850, is as follows:
Holder Sisson, 1836-39, 4 years, deceased; Thomas Durham, 1836-38, 3 years, deceased; James Walker, 1836, 1 year, deceased; R. L. Wilson, 1837-38, 2 years, deceased; J. Blackstone, 1839, 1 year, deceased; Thomas Cox, parts of 1839-40; W. B. Peck, 1839-42, 4 years, deceased; William Gougar, part of 1840-41, 2 years, deceased; H. Sisson, 1840, 1 year, deceased; Samuel Whalon, 1841-43, 3 years, deceased; N. Hawley, 1842-44, 3 years, deceased; F. Mitchell, 1844-46, 3 years; Willard Wood, 1843-44, 2 years; Robert Stevens, 1845-47, 3 years, deceased; James Walker, 1846-19, 4 years, deceased; J. B. Schemerhorn, 1848-49, 2years; F. Worcester, 1847-49, 3 years.
On the first organization of the county, there was included a tier of four townships on the south, lying east of Wesley, and also that part of the townships south of them and north of the Kankakee River, which were lost to us on the organization of Kankakee County in 1853, and it was from this part of the county that Thomas Durham and F. Worcester were chosen. On the organization of Du Page County in 1839, we came very near losing half the townships of Wheatland and Dupage. It was left by the act to the voters residing on the half townships to decide by vote in August to which county they would belong. They very wisely decided to remain in Will County. But they had not much wisdom to spare, as the matter was decided by a majority of one vote. We shall now close our historical sketch by giving a list of all the other county officers from the erection of the county to the present time, and follow it with a list of those who have filled State and other offices from the county. This will be more cheerful reading, and will get many good men into history:
County Clerks.—Levi Jenks, 1836-42, 7 years; N. D. Elwood, 1843-48, 6 years, deceased; O. L. Hawley, 1849-56, 8 years, deceased; William Tonner, 1857-64, 8 years; Henry Logan, 1865-68, 4 years; J. C. Williams, 1869-73, 5 years; W. B. Hawley, 1874-77, 4 years; W. H. Zarley, 1878, now in office.
Recorders.—G. H. Woodruff, 1836-42, 7 years; R. C. Duncan, 1843-47, 5 years, died in 1874.
Circuit Clerks.—Levi Jenks, 1836-40, 5 years; William Smith, 1841-37, 7 years, deceased.
Circuit Clerks and Recorders (offices united).—M. McEvoy, 1848-51, 4 years, died in 1861; R. E. Barber, 1852-55, 4 years; Alex. McIntosh, 1856-59, 4 years; B. F. Russell, 1860-67, 8 years, deceased; Conrad Tatge, 1868-75, 8 years; Robert Clow, 1876, 4 years; now in office.
Treasurers.—C. Clement, 1836, 1 year; Bennett Allen, 1837, l year, deceased; Samuel Anderson, 1838, 1 year, deceased; William Adams, 1839-42, 4 years; Isaac Jessup, 1843-46, 4 years, deceased; H. N. Stoddard, 1847-50, 4 years, deceased; Benjamin Richardson, 1851-54, 4 years, died in August, 1869; C. H. Weeks, 1855-58, 4 years; F. D. S. Stewart, 1859-60, 2 years; Benjamin Richardson, 1861-62, 2 years, deceased; Fred. Schring, 1863-66, 4 years; A. J. Fries, 1867-68, 2 years; R. F. Barber, 1869-70, 2 years; A. J. Fries, 1871-73, 3 years; James W. Martin, 1873-76, 4 years; John T. Donahue, 1877; now in office.
Sheriffs.—F. Aldrich, 1836-39, 4 years; H. D. Risley, 1840-43, 4 years, deceased; James Broadie, 1844-47, 4 years, deceased; Alonzo Leach, 1848-49, 2 years; R. J. Cunningham, 1850-51, 2 years, deceased; Alonzo Leach, 1852-53, 2 years; P. P. Scarritt, 1854-55, 2 years; George R. Dyer, 1856-57, 2 years; Alonzo Leach, 1S58-59, 2 years; W. W. Bartlett, 1860-61, 2 years; George Monroe, 1862-63, 2 years; John Reid, 1864-65, 2 years; George Strathdie, 1866-67, 2 years; H. Johnson, 1868-69, 2 years; R. W. Marshall, 1870-71, 2 years; G. M. Arnold, 1872-75, 4 years; Warren S. Noble, 1876-78, resigned; Henry S. Piepenbrink, 1878.
County Judges.—Hugh Henderson, 1837, 1 year, deceased; G. H. Woodruff, 1838, 1 year; A. Cagwin, 1839-42,4 years; J. O. Norton, 1843-1848, 6 years, deceased; G. D. A. Parks, 1849-52, 4 years; S. Simmons, 1853-56, 4 years; 0. L. Hawley, 1857-60, 4 years, deceased; C. H. Weeks, 1861-64, 4 years; David Willard, 1865-73, 9 years; Benjamin Olin, 1874, still in office.
School Commissioners.—Levi Jenks, 1836-40, 5 years; James Stout, 1841-44, 4 years, deceased; Thomas Allen, 1845, part of year; G. S. Fake, 1845-46, two years; H. N. Marsh, 1847-48, two years; K. J. Hammond, 1849-52, 4 years; S. W. Stone, 1853-54, two years; S. O. Simonds, 1855-56, 2 years; B. F. Allen, 1857-58, 2 years; Edward Savage, 1859-60, 2 years, deceased; S. O. Simonds, 1861-62, 2 years; Charles McReading, 1863-64, 2 years, deceased; Dwight Haven, 1865-68, 4 years; S. O. Simonds, 1869-73, 5 years; Mrs. S. C. McIntosh, 1874-77, 4 years; Joseph F. Perry, 1878, still in office.
County Surveyors.—Addison Collins, 1836-39, 4 years, deceased; R. J. Boylan, 1840-48, 9 years, J. Woolley, 1849-52,4 years, deceased; A. J. Matthewson, 1853-60, 8 years; Adam Comstock, 1861-64, 4 years; N. D. Ingraham, 1865-66, 2 years; Adam Comstock, 1867-74, 8 years; A. J. Matthewson, 1875, 4 years, still in office.
Coroners—E. M. Daggett, 1836-37, 2 years; Joel George, 1838-43, 6 years; C. White, 1844, 1 year; Benjamin Richardson, 1845-51, 7 years, deceased; A. B. Mead, 1852-53, 2 years; J. H. Reece, 1854-57, 4 years; Charles Demmond, 1858-61, 4 years, died in 1867; E. E. Daly, 1862-63, 2 years; J. H. Reece, 1864-65, 2 years; A. J. Fries, 1866-67, 2 years; J. H. Reece, 1868-69, 2 years; Charles Richards, 1870-74, 5 years; M. B. Campbell, 1875-76, 2 years; Thomas McBride, 1877, still in office.
BOARD OF SUPERVISORS
Town of Channahon.—George Tryon, 1850-52, 3 years; H. Henderson, 1853, 1 year, deceased; J. J. Schemmerhorn, 1854-56, 3 years; Charles C. Smith, 1857-61, 5 years; E. H. Jessup, 1862, 1 year; John T. Randall, 1863-65, 3 years; J. N. Fryer, 1860-77-78, 13 years, still in office.
Town of Crete.—N. Brown, 1850, 1 year; A. Wilder, 1851-53, 3 years; Willard Wood, 1854, 1 year; Z. Henderson, 1855, 1 year.
The town of Washington was then set off.
Crete [continued).—Willard Wood, 1856, 1 year; M. Kile, 1857, 1 year; H. H. Mynard, 1858, 1 year; W. Hewes, 1859, 1 year; C. Tatge, 1800, 1 year; N. Brown, 1861, 1 year; E. W. Beach, 1862, 1 year; H. A. Dean, 1863, 1 year; C. Tatge, 1864, 1 year; W. Hewes, 1865, 1 year; C. Tatge, 1866-7, 2 years; C. Horn, 1868, 1 year; J. O'Meier, 1869-71, 3 years; C. Horn, 1872, 1 year; J. O'Meier, 1873-74, 2 years; D. S. Bordwell, 1875-76, 2 years; J. O'Meier, 1877-78, 2 years, now in office.
Town of Dupage—John Miller, 1850, 1 year; A. C. Paxton, 1851-52, 2 years; R. W. Smith, 1853-54, 2 years, died January 2, 1869; H. Boardman, 1855, 1 year; E. D. Eaton, 1856, 1 year; A. C. Paxton, 1857, 1 year; T. H. Abbott, 1858-59, 2 years; B. B. Clark, 1860, 1 year; J. P. King, 1861, 1 year; Robert Strong, 1862, 1 year; B. B. Clark, 1863, 1 year; E. Virgil, 1864, l year; R. W. Smith, 1865-67, 3 years; A. Godfrey, 1868, 1 year; J. B. King, 1869, 1 year; John Royce, 1870-73, 4 years; Thomas Williams, 1874-78, 4 years, now in office.
Town of Frankfort.—W. B. Cleveland, 1850-52, 3 years; M. Van Horne, 1853-56, 4 years; O. McGovney, 1857, 1 year; H. S. Higgins, 1858, 1 year; O. McGovney, 1859-60, 2 years; John Reid, 1861-63, 3 years; J. B. Etz, 1864, 1 year; Josiah Carpenter, 1805, 1 year; George Bez, 1866, 1 year; O. McGovney, 1867-68, 2 years: J. Hunter, 1869-70, 2 years; S. Shuberth, 1871-72, 2 years; H. R. Wood, 1873, 1 year; John Baumgartner, 1874-75, 2 years; John McDonald, 1876-78, still in office.
Town of Florence.—W. W. Monteith, 1851, 1 year; E. H. Strong, 1852, 1 year; J. Linebarger, 1853, 1 year; S. Morey, 1854, 1 year; J. Kahler, 1855, 1 year; J. Shoemaker, 1850, 1 year; M. Turtle, 1857-58, 2 years; J. Shoemaker, 1859-61, 3 years; J. Kahler, 1862, 1 year; J. Linebarger, 1863, 1 year; J. M. White, 1864, 1 year; C. Hazard, 1805-69, 5 years; S. Morey, 1870, 1 year; J. Shirk, 1871-73, 3 years; Thomas Maher, 1874-70, 3 years; Royal S. Corbin, 1877-78, now in office.
Town of Greengarden.—J. A. Bemiss, 1853, 1 year; N. Johnson, 1854-55, 2 years; G. M. Green, 1856-57, 2 years; B. K. Hutchinson, 1858, 1 year; J. W. Young, 1859-1860, 2 years; M. F. Sanders, 1861-62, 2 years; A. A. Angel, 1863, 1 year; G. M. Green, 1864, 1 year; M. F. Sanders, 1865, 1 year; L. J. Burditt, 1866-67, 2 years; G. B. Wood, 1868-70, 3 years; H. Eisenbrandt, 1871-72, 2 years; H. H. Stasson, Jr., 1873-78, 5 years, now in office.
Town of Homer.—Samuel Blount, 1850, 1 year; Ira Austin, 1851, 1 year; Addison Collins, 1852-53, 2 years; Ira Austin, 1854-59, 6 years; Alanson Granger, 1860, 1 year; Amos Savage, elected in 1861; resigned to go to the war; J. D. Frazer, 1861, 1 year; S. Knapp, 1862, 1 year; Alanson Granger, 1863, 1 year; A. G. Rowley, 1864-65, 2 years; Levi Hartwell, 1866, 1 year; Amos Savage, 1867-72, 6 years; J. H. Randle, 1873, 1 year; J. D. Frazer, 1874, 1 year; Amos Savage, 1875-76, 2 years; A. G. Rowley, 1877, 1 year, J. D. Frazer, 1878, now in office.
Town of Jackson.—S. Johnson, 1850, 1 year; George Linebarger, 1851-53, 3 years; E. B. Crafts, 1854-55, 2 years; S. Johnson, 1856, 1 year; George Linebarger, 1857, 1 year; E. B. Crafts, 1858, 1 year; George Linebarger, 1859, 1 year; D. D. Powless, 1860, 1 year; S. Johnson, 1861, 1 year; S. Young, 1862, 1 year: George Linebarger, 1863, 1 year; H. Spangler, 1864, 1 year; George Linebarger, 1865-1867, 3 years; Thomas Tait, 1868, 1 year; H. Spangler, 1869-75, 7 years; W. F. Keith, 1876-77, 2 years; Henry Spangler, 1878, now in office.
Town of Joliet.—Charles Clement, 1850-52, 3 years; A. Cagwin, 1853, 1 year; F. Aldrich, 1854, 1 year; Joel George, 1855, 1 year; Edmund Wilcox, 1856,1 year; E. Wilcox and R. Stevens, 1857, 1 year; S. W. Bowen and J. Shutts, 1858, 1 year; R. E. Goodell and E. Wilcox, 1859, 1 year; R. E. Goodell and H. B. Goddard, 1860, 1 year; R. E. Goodell and George Woodruff, 1861, 1 year; George Woodruff and J. C. Zarley, 1862, one year; S. K. Casey and J. Shutts, 1863, 1 year; W. S. Brooks and John Shutts, 1864-66, 3 years; W. S. Brooks and E. Daly, 1867-68, 2 years; W. S. Brooks and A. Schiedt, 1869-70, 2 years; William Werner and D. P. Hendricks, 1871, 1 year; William Werner and W. A. Strong, Jr., 1872, 1 year; William Werner and R. Walsh, 1873, 1 year; William Werner, A. O. Marshall, James Boland and N. D. Tighe, 1874, 1 year; W. S. Brooks, John Ryan, James Boland and Nathaniel Barnes, 1875, 1 year; W. S. Brooks, John Ryan, Antony Schiedt and William Werner, 1876, 1 year; F. J. Rapple, William Werner, John Ryan and Mansfield Young, 1877, 1 year; F. J. Rapple, John Schiedt, William Gleason, John Lyons, 1878, 1 year; now in office.
Town of Lockport.—J. W. Paddock, 1850, 1 year; Joel C. Mills, 1851-52, 2 years; Henry Torrey, 1853, 1 year; C. Dowd, 1854, 1 year; J. C. Mills, 1855, 1 year; R. B. Harrington, 1856, 1 year; A. S. Anderson, 1857, 1 year; C. E. Boyer, 1858, 1 year; William Hanley, 1859, 1 year; S. Sly, 1860-61, 2 years; S. Lonergan, 1862, 1 year; W. H. Baker, 1863-65, 3 years; J. Fiddyment, 1866-68, 3 years; P. Fitzpatrick, 1869-70, 2 years; J. F. Daggett, 1871, 1 year; J. H. Arnold, 1872, 1 year; W. W. Marcy, 1873-74, 2 years; Julius Scheibe, 1875, 1 year; J. A. Boyer, 1876, 1 year; George M. Arnold, 1877-78, 2 years; now in office.
Trenton.—William Nelson, 1850, 1 year; M. Baily, 1851-52, 2 years.
The town was then divided into Manhattan and Greengarden.
Town of Manhattan—John Young, 1853, 1 year; Clark Baker, 1854-55, 2 years; John Young, 1856-60, 5 years; Clark Baker, 1861-62, 2 years; G. A. Buck, 1863-64, 2 years; J. E. Baker, 1865-69, 5 years; G. A. Buck, 1870-73, 3 years; Stephen Robinson, 1873-74, 2 years; Clark Baker, 1875, 1877-78, 4 years; now in office.
Town of Carey.—S. W. Cooper, 1850, 1 year; John S. Holland, 1851-53, 3 years; George Baker, 1854-55, 2 years; B. Sheridan, 1856, 1 year; D. Milliken, 1857-58, 2 years; now in office.
The town of Carey was then divided into Will and Monee.
Monee.—O. Kahler, 1859-62, 4 years; A. Herbert, 1863-64, 2 years; E. C. Howard, 1865, 1 year; A. Vass, 1866-68, 3 years; S. W. Cooper, 1869, 1 year; J. Griffith, 1870-72, 3 years; J. Kolstedt, 1873-74, 2 years; Leubbe Albers, 1875-77, 3 years; John Koldstedt, 1877, now in office.
New Lenox.—J. Van Duzer, 1850, 1 year; A. McDonald, 1851, 1 year; B. F. Allen, 1852, 1 year; G. McDonald, 1853, 1 year; J. C. Kerchival, 1854-55, 2 years; Dwight Haven, 1856-57, 2 years; J. C. Kerchival, 1858, 1 year; Dwight Haven, 1859-60, 2 years; A. Frank, 1861-63, 3 years; T. Doig, 1864, 1 year; Dwight Haven, 1865, 1 year; T. Doig, 1866-67, 2 years; Dwight Haven, 1868, 1 year; T. Doig, 1869, 1 year; C. Snoad, 1870-71, 2 years; J. Francis, 1872, 1 year; P. Cavanaugh, 1873, 1 year; Thomas Doig, 1874, 1 year; John Francis, 1875, 1877-78, 4 years; now in office.
Town of Plainfield.—L. Hamlin, 1850, 1 year; J. Ballard, 1851, 1 year; A. Culver, 1852, 1 year; L. Hamlin, 1853, 1 year; Cyrus Ashley, 1854, 1 year; Winthrop Wright, 1855-56, 2 years; A. Culver, 1857, 1 year; D. Vandersoll, 1858, 1 year; A. Culver, 1859, 1 year; Winthrop Wright, 1860, 1 year; W. P. Caton, 1861-68, 8 years; A. McClaskey, 1869-76, 8 years; Hervey Stratton, 1877-78, 2 years; now in office.
Peotone.—M. Wright, 1858, 1 year; S. Goodspeed, 1859-60, 2 years; J. P. Dean, 1861-62, 2 years; F. Fahs, 1863-64, 2 years; S. C. Guion, 1865-67, 3 years; S. Goodspeed, 1868-69, 2 years; T. Gilkerson, 1870, 1 year; R. Crawford, 1871-72, 2 years; David L. Christian, 1873, 1 year; R. Crawford, 1874, 1 year; Michael Collins, 1875-76, 2 years; J. B. Sollitt, Sr., 1877, 1 year; Michael Collins, 1878, now in office.
Town of Reed.—John Kilpatrick, 1850, 1 year; T. T. Tilden, 1851-53, 3 years; A. Yates, 1854, 1 year; R. S. Nobles, 1855, 1 year; R. Warner, 1856-57, 2 years; J. Martin, 1858, 1 year; F. D. S. Stewart, 1859, 1 year; T. T. Tilden, 1860-61, 2 years; F. D. S. Stewart, 1862-63, 2 years; M. Stewart, 1864-1865, 2 years; S. P. Stewart, 1866-67, 2 years; E. Gano, 1868-69, 2 years; William Conner, 1870-72, 3 years; Thomas Hennebry, 1873, 1 year; William Mooney, 1874, 1 year; H. Le Caron, 1875, 1 year; J. R. Marsh, 1876, 1 year; John Young, 1877-78, 2 years, still in office.
Town of Troy.—J. H. Robinson, 1850-51, 2 years; John McEvoy, 1852, 1 year; John T. Randall, 1853-54, 2 years; P. Rowan, 1855, 1 year; G. Kinsella, 1856-5S, 3 years; J. Dillon, 1859-60, 2 years, died in 1867; N. Hull, 1861-62, 2 years; H. W. Searles, 1863-64, 2 years; J. Dempsey, 1865-1867, 3 years; D. C. Searles, 1868, 1 year; William McEvoy, 1869-71, 3 years; David Murphy, 1872-73, 2 years; James McDonald, 1874-75, 2 years; D. C. Searles, 1876-78, 3 years; now in office.
Town of Wilmington.—John Frazier, 1850, 1 year.
The town was then divided into Wilmington, Florence and Wesley.
Town of Wilmington —A. J. McIntyre, 1851-52, 2 years; H. R. Whipple, 1853-55, 3 years; J. J. Camp, 1856-57, 2 years; R. S. Nobles, 1858, 1 year; J. D. Henderson, 1859-60, 2 years; D. U. Cobb, 1861-62, 2 years; A. J. McIntyre, 1863-64, 2 years; F. Mitchell, 1865, 1 year; E. R. Willard, 1866-67, 2 years; J. H. Daniels, 1868-70, 3 years; S. C. Camp, 1871-73, 3 years; R. C. Thompson, 1874-76, 3 years; S. Silliman, 1877-78, 2 years; still in office.
Town of Wheatland.—D. W. Cropsey, 1850-51, 2 years; S. Simmons, 1852-53, 2 years; F. Boardman, 1854-56, 3 years; Robert Clow, 1857, 1 year; S. Simmons, 1858-60, 3 years; Robert Clow, 1861-76, 16 years; J. M. McMicken, 1877-78, 2 years, still in office.
Town of Wesley.—John Frazier, 1851, 1 year; H. Warner, 1852-55, 4 years; David Willard, 1856-61, 6 years; John Frazier, 1862, 1 year; D. Willard, 1863, 1 year; S. S. Case, 1864, 1 year; David Willard, 1865-69, 5 years; Sylvester Jones, 1870-73, 4 years; Guy M. Beckwith, 1874, 1 year; H. Warner, 1875-78, 4 years; still in office.
Town of Wilton.—William Dancer, 1850, 1 year; James Kibben, 1851, 1 year; H. Hervey, 1852-55, 4 years: W. T. Nelson, 1856, 1 year; William Mills, 1857, 1 year.
The town of Peotone was then set off.
Town of Wilton, continued.—William Mills, 1858, 1 year; A. Warner, 1859, 1 year; M. O. Cagwin, 1860-63, 4 years; M. Dennis, 1864, 1 year; W. B. Bass, 1865-67, 3 years; J. Keniston, 1868-70, 3 years; S. Smith, 1871-73, 3 years; Samuel G. Nelson, 1874-78, 5 years, still in office.
Town of Will.—S. Storer, 1859-61, 3 years; H. N. Ingersoll, 1862-63, 2 years; F. P. Lilley, 1864, 1 year; H. N. Ingersoll, 1865, 1 year; F. P. Lilley, 1S66-67, 2 years; James Maxwell, 1868, 1 year; F. P. Lilley, 1869-73, 5 years; J. B. Sollitt, Jr., 1874-76, 3 years; John I. Rice, 1877, 1 year; R. Patterson, 1878; still in office.
At the July session of the Board, all that part of the town of Reed lying east of the section line dividing Towns 3 and 4, and running south, through the township, was set off into a new town, and named Custer—thus making it sure that the name of the hero of a late Indian battle should be preserved; and at the September session of the Board, there was a new Supervisor for the town of Custer—George W. Petro, 1876-78, 3 years.
Town of Washington.—R. Richards, 1856, 1 year; J. White, 1857, 1 year; E. C. Richards, 1858, 1 year; Z. Dewey, 1859-60, 2 years; H. Bahlman, 1861-62, 2 years; R. Dunbar, 1863-64, 2 years; F. Kouka, 1865, 1 year; R. Dunbar, 1866-68, 3 years; H. Mathias, 1869-70, 2 years; F. Wilkie, 1871-78, 9 years; now in office.
Besides the county officers whose names are given in the preceding lists, Will County has furnished men to the Legislature, Senatorial and Congressional Districts of which she has formed a part, and to the State and United States service, as follows:
Governor.—J. A. Matteson, 1852.
Secretary of State.—David L. Gregg, 1851, also Commissioner to Sandwich Islands.
Members of Congress.—J. 0. Norton, 1852, 1854, 1862; Henry Snapp, 1871, to fill vacancy.
State Senate.—John Pearson, 1843, resigned; Joel A. Matteson, special, 1843 and 1848; Uri Osgood, 1852; G. D. A. Parks, 1856; Henry Snapp, 1868, resigned; J. F. Daggett, 1871, to fill vacancy; William S. Brooks, 1872; A. O. Marshall, 1874 and 1878.
General Assembly.—James Walker (town of Plainfield), 1836; David L. Gregg, Joliet, 1840; Addison Collins, Homer, 1842; William E. Little, Joliet, 1846 and 1848; John Miller, Dupage, 1840 and 1848; O. H. Haven, Joliet, 1849, to fill vacancy; J. O. Norton, Joliet, 1850; S. W. Randall, Joliet, 1850; G. D. A. Parks, Joliet, 1854; Hiram Norton, Lockport, 1858; Charles E. Boyer, Lockport, 1862; A. J. McIntyre, Wilmington, 1864; Robert Clow, Wheatland, 1866 and 1870; George Gaylord, Lockport, 1868; William S. Brooks, Joliet, 1870; John H. Daniels, Wilmington, 1870; Jabez Harvey, Wilton, 1872; Amos Savage, Homer, 1872; John S. Jessup, Wilmington, 1872; H. H. Stassen, Greengarden, 1874; William Mooney, Reed, 1874; Frederick Kouka, Washington, 1876; L. H. Goodrich, Reed, 1874 and 1876; D. H. Pinney, Joliet, 1876.
United States District Attorney for Northern Illinois.—Jesse 0. Norton; appointed by Johnson.
Circuit Judges.—John Pearson, 1857; Hugh Henderson, 1849; S. W. Randall, 1854; J. O. Norton, 1857 ; Josiah McRoberts, 1860, still in office; Francis Goodspeed, 1877, still in office; J. E. Streeter, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Nebraska.
District Attorneys.—Uri Osgood, 1836; William A. Boardman, 1845; S. W. Bowen, 1851; F. A. Bartleson, 1857; Henry Logan, 1861; S. W. Munn, 1864; C A. Hill, 1868; E. C. Hager, 1872: J. R. Flanders, 1876.
Canal Trustee for State.—Josiah McRoberts; appointed in 1853.
Surveyor General of Oregon.—John B. Preston, of Lockport; appointed in 1850.
Delegates to Constitutional Convention, l847-48.—J. O. Norton, of Joliet; Hugh Henderson, of Joliet.
Delegate to Constitutional Convention of 1861-62.—Francis Goodspeed, of Joliet.
Delegate to Constitutional Convention of 1870.—William C. Goodhue, of Joliet.
Penitentiary Commissioners.—N. D. Elwood, of Joliet, on first Board; G. D. A. Parks, of Joliet, 1864; John Reid, 1867.
State Board of Equalization.—William P. Caton, of Plainfield, 1867; Amos Savage, of Homer, 1876.
United States Assessors.—Henry Snapp, H. B. Goddard.
United States Collectors.—Charles M. Hammond, 1867; Horace Weeks, 1872; W. R. Pennington, Deputy.
Joliet Postmasters.—A. W. Bowen, from the establishment of the office, in 1835, to the administration of Taylor; J. T. McDougall, 1850, Taylor's administration; M. K. Brownson, 1853, Fillmore's administration; Calneh Zarley, 1854, Pierce's administration; Calneh Zarley, 1858, Buchanan's administration; J. L. Braden, 1861, Lincoln's administration; H. N. Marsh, Lincoln's administration; Alonzo Leach, 1865, Johnson's administration; Anson Patterson, first term of Grant's administration; James Goodspeed, second term of Grant's administration; James Goodspeed, Hayes' administration.
We have already discovered one omission which was made in the list of early settlers on Hickory Creek, to wit; Asher Holmes, who came in the Spring of 1835, from Chautauqua Co., N. Y. He has been dead twenty years or more, but left a widow who still lives, and sons who perpetuate his name. No doubt we have made other omissions; if so, it has been involuntary, and no one will regret it more than the writer.
The writer has now probably appeared in the role of a historian for the last time. Without feeling that he had any special fitness for the work, he has been led to undertake it by a desire to preserve the names and memory of the original settlers of Will County, and also of the brave boys, their sons, and the sons of the later comers, as well, who hazarded, and in many cases lost, their lives to save the Union. While the record may be somewhat imperfect, it is believed to be in both cases substantially correct. That he has been permitted to discharge this duty affords him no little satisfaction, although it has greatly interfered with his legitimate calling. It is no small satisfaction, also, that he was permitted to see the region we now call Will County, when it was yet in its pristine beauty; its prairies, fresh from the Creator's hand, still the lair of the wolf and the wild deer, while the canoe of the Indian still shot along its streams, and the solitudes of its forests echoed the crack of his rifle, and the paths worn by his moccasined feet were still the guiding trail of the emigrant; and then to have lived to see those verdant wastes clothed with flocks and herds, with waving harvest-fields, and the vast forests of rustling corn, in whose depths armies might ambush; to see its solitudes become peopled with 50,000 civilized and intelligent human beings; its streams forced to subserve the ends of manufacture and commerce; to see the trail of the Indian obliterated by the railway track, and the ox-team and prairie schooner displaced by the locomotive and the rushing train; to see the landscape dotted with happy homes, churches and schoolhouses, and the silence of its wastes broken by
"The laugh of children, the soft voice
Of maidens, and the sweet and solemn hymn,
Of Sabbath worshipers;"
to have been permitted to witness all this change during the years that have come and gone in quick succession while the panorama has been unfolding before him—this he counts one of his chiefest satisfactions. And while the memory delights to linger over the past, and the imagination to recall the lovely pictures presented to his eye forty-four years ago, he is not of the number of those who say or feel that "the former times were better than these."